Evidence arising from multiple-case studies is often stronger and more reliable than from single-case research. Multiple-case studies allow for more comprehensive exploration of research questions and theory development. Despite the advantages of case studies, there are limitations. The sheer volume of data is difficult to organise and data analysis and integration strategies need to be carefully thought through.
There is also sometimes a temptation to veer away from the research focus. This involved collecting several datasets:. The other author of this paper RH has conducted a multiple-case study to determine the quality of care for patients with complex clinical presentations in NPLCs in Ontario, Canada. Three types of data were collected including:.
Chart audits conducted at the five NPLCs to determine the extent to which evidence-based guidelines were followed for patients with diabetes and at least one other chronic condition. The multiple-case study confirmed that nurse practitioners are the primary care providers at the NPLCs, and this positively impacts the quality of care for patients with multimorbidity. This, along with insufficient resources in the communities where NPLCs are located and high patient vulnerability at NPLCs, have a negative impact on the quality of care.
Case study methodology serves to provide a framework for evaluation and analysis of complex issues. It shines a light on the holistic nature of nursing practice and offers a perspective that informs improved patient care. Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.
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Register a new account? Forgot your user name or password? Search for this keyword. Advanced search. Log in via Institution. Email alerts. Article Text. To learn how to do a marketing case study, scroll down! To create this article, 22 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. Together, they cited 13 references. Istifanus Manasseh.
Learn why people trust wikiHow. Learn more Method 1. Define the subject of study. A case study focuses on a single individual, a small group of people, or occasionally a single event. You'll be conducting qualitative research to find specific details and descriptions of how your subject is affected.
For example, a medical case study might study how a single patient is affected by an injury. A psychology case study might study a small group of people in an experimental form of therapy. Case studies are not designed for large group studies or statistical analysis.
How to Write a Psychology Case Study
Decide between prospective and retrospective research. Prospective case studies perform new studies of their own, involving individuals or small groups. Retrospective case studies examine a small number of past cases related to the subject of study, and do not require new involvement with the subject of these cases. A case study may or may not include both types of research. Narrow down your research goal. This may be given to you in advance by a professor or employer, or you may develop it on your own. Here are the main types of case studies, organized by goal:  Illustrative case studies describe an unfamiliar situation in order to help people understand it.
For instance, a case study of a person with depression, designed to help communicate the subjective experience of depression to therapist trainees. Exploratory case studies are preliminary projects to help guide a future, larger-scale project. They aim to identify research questions and possible research approaches. For example, a case study of three school tutoring programs would describe the pros and cons of each approach, and give tentative recommendations on how a new tutoring program could be organized. Critical instance case studies focus on a unique cases, without a generalized purpose.
Examples include a descriptive study of a patient with a rare condition, or a study of a specific case to determine whether a broadly applied "universal" theory is actually applicable or useful in all cases. Apply for ethical approval. Almost all case studies are required by law to obtain ethical approval before they can begin.
Contact your institution or department and propose your case study to the people in charge of ethics oversight. You may be asked to prove that the case study does no harm to its participants. Follow this step even if you are conducting a retrospective case study. In some cases, publishing a new interpretation can cause harm to the participants in the original study.
Plan for a long-term study.
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Most academic case studies last at least 3—6 months, and many of them continue for years. You may be limited by your research funding or the length of your degree program, but you should allow a few weeks to conduct the study at the very least. Design your research strategy in detail. Create an outline describing how you will gather data and answer your research questions. The exact approach is up to you, but these tips may help: Create four or five bullet points that you intend to answer, if possible, in the study.
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Consider perspectives on approaching the question and the related bullet points. Choose at least two, and preferably more, of these data sources: report collection, internet research, library research, interviewing research subjects, interviewing experts, other fieldwork, and mapping concepts or typologies. Design interview questions that will lead to in-depth answers and continued conversations related to your research goals. Recruit participants if necessary. You may have a specific individual in mind, or you may need to recruit people from a broader pool who satisfy your research criteria.
What Is a Case Study?
Make your research methods and time frame extremely clear to the potential participants. Unclear communication could be a breach of ethics, or could cause a participant to walk out partway through the study, wasting a great deal of time.
Since you aren't conducting a statistical analysis, you do not need to recruit a diverse cross-section of society. You should be aware of any biases in your small sample, and make them clear in your report, but they do not invalidate your research. Method 2. Perform background research. If studying people, research information in their past that may be relevant, possibly including medical history, family history, or history of an organization. A good background knowledge of the research topic and similar case studies could help guide your own research as well, especially if you are writing a critical interest case study.
Any case study, but especially case studies with a retrospective component, will benefit from basic academic research strategies. Learn how to conduct obtrusive observation. In a case study involving human participants, ethics guidelines do not typically allow you to "spy" on the participants.
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You must practice obtrusive observation, where the participants are aware of your presence. Unlike a quantitative study, you may talk with the participants, make them feel comfortable, and include yourself in activities. Some researchers do attempt to maintain a distance, but be aware that your presence will affect the behavior of the participants regardless of the relationship you form with them. This section will have the following structure and content:. Background Information The first section of your paper will present your client's background.
Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses. Description of the Presenting Problem In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with.